The history of industry
China is one of the first countries in the world to invent rolling bearings. According to archaeological relics and data, China’s oldest bearing with the prototype of a modern rolling bearing structure appeared in Xuejiaya Village, Yongji County, Shanxi Province from 221 to 207 BC (Qin Dynasty). Cylindrical rolling bearings were also used in ancient Chinese astronomical instruments in 1280 AD (Yuan Dynasty). Although China was in the forefront of world civilization in the field of rolling bearing technology in history, the bearing industry in old China was very backward. After the founding of New China, especially since the 1970s, under the strong promotion of reform and opening up, the bearing industry has entered a new period of high-quality and rapid development. In the 50 years since the founding of the People's Republic of China, China's bearing industry has made brilliant achievements that have attracted worldwide attention!
Bearings (rolling bearings for short) are widely used and demanding accessory parts and basic parts in the machinery industry, and are called mechanical joints. Due to the wide range of applications, the variety and complexity of bearing varieties are determined. The strict requirements determine the importance of bearing quality and performance. Bearing manufacturing is a kind of precision basic parts manufacturing. Its accuracy is measured by "0.001 millimeter" (mm), while the manufacturing tolerance of ordinary mechanical parts is generally only "0.01 mm". The noise and vibration of the motor largely depend on the quality of the bearing; the swing difference and temperature rise of the high-precision machine tool spindle are closely related to the quality of the bearing. The performance of the bearing in the communication satellite anti-rotation device directly affects its communication effect; the failure of key bearings in aerospace and aviation will cause serious accidents. In short, the accuracy, performance, life, reliability and various economic indicators of the mainframe in various fields such as industry, agriculture, national defense, science and technology, and household appliances are closely related to the bearing, and the development of the bearing industry is also related It depends on the manufacturing level of my country's major technical equipment and the export capacity of machinery and equipment. Bearings are playing an increasingly important role in the national economy and national defense construction: Before the founding of New China, the bearing manufacturing industry was almost blank. Bearings needed for mechanical equipment matching and maintenance basically rely on imports. At that time, there were only a few bearing factories and stores in Wafangdian, Liaoning Province, Shenyang, Shanghai, and Changzhi, Shanxi Province, but there was not a single factory that could independently produce the four bearing elements (inner and outer ring, rolling element, and cage). 1949 In 2015, the national annual output of bearings was only 138,000 sets. Over the past 50 years since the founding of China, the bearing industry has developed rapidly, with bearing varieties from small to large, product quality and technical level from low to high, and industry scale from small to large.
The development process of the bearing industry can be roughly divided into three stages:
(1) The foundation laying stage (1949～1957)
Wafangdian Bearing Factory resumed production in 1949 and became the first independent manufacturer of bearings in China. During the Anti-US Aid Korea, part of the Wafangdian Bearing Factory moved north to Harbin, and the Harbin Bearing Factory was built and put into production in April 1951. In 1953, the Shanghai bearing industry formed four central plants and more than 10 satellite plants, namely Qin Fuxing Bearing Factory, Shanggong Bearing Factory, Rongtai New Machinery Factory and Jinxing Iron Factory. With the assistance of the former Soviet Union, Luoyang Bearing Factory, one of the 156 key projects nationwide, broke ground at the end of March 1954. In 1957, 136,000 sets of ordinary bearings were trial-produced. So far, the four main production bases of my country's bearing industry, Wafangdian, Harbin, Luoyang, and Shanghai, have initially formed, laying the foundation for the development of bearing manufacturing. In 1957, the national bearing output exceeded 10 million sets for the first time.
(2) System formation stage (1958～1977)
This stage is in the five-year development period of the national five-year plan from "1•Five" to "Five•Five", which brings new opportunities to the bearing industry. In the mid-term of "One•Five", Luoyang Bearing Factory passed the national inspection and acceptance in July 1958 and was successfully completed and put into production; Shanghai Bearing Industry began to form a bearing industrial base with local characteristics; Wafangdian and Harbin Bearing Factory were substantial and well-received. development of. At the same time, scientific research and factory design institutions such as the Luoyang Bearing Research Institute and the Tenth Design Research Institute directly under the Ministry have been established. During this period, the bearing manufacturing industry has developed rapidly for new products supporting key mainframes. It has begun to produce automotive universal joint needle roller bearings, magneto bearings, machine tool spindle bearings and precision bearings, and trial-produced railway locomotives, rolling mills, and heavy machinery. , Petroleum industry and aviation generators, tanks and other main engine parts of the supporting bearings.
During the "2•Five" period, in order to adapt to the development of agricultural mechanization, 38 bearing factories (points) have been built in Chengdu, Hangzhou, Hefei, Wuxi, Jinan, Yantai, Shanghai, Beijing, Guangzhou, Kunming, Changsha and other places. The first peak of development of China's bearing industry. These bearing factories have developed into key enterprises in various provinces and cities.
During the "Three Fives" period, that is, from the mid-1960s, the focus of China's bearing industry construction investment was concentrated on the third-tier areas far from the coastal industries. In the third-line construction, a number of bearing factories have been built in the southwest, northwest and central south regions in Guizhou Hongshan, Guiyang, Lanzhou, Gansu Hailin, Shaanxi Haihong, Ningxia Northwest, Qinghai Haishan, and Hubei Xiangyang, further improving the company Layout. Among them, Xiangyang Bearing Factory is mainly engaged in the production of automotive bearings. In the 1970s, that is, during the "Fourth Five-Year Plan" period, the bearing industry has developed simultaneously to meet the needs of the "big battle in the mines". An emerging automotive bearing production base.
A number of local medium and small bearing factories have been established one after another, forming the second peak period of China's bearing industry. In the climax of factory building in the early 1970s, there were more than 600 rolling bearing manufacturers nationwide. During this period, short cylindrical roller bearings, spherical roller bearings, and tapered roller bearings have all developed rapidly, and bearing varieties and specifications have become more complete. By the beginning of "Five-Five", China's bearing manufacturing industry has gradually established Wafangdian, Harbin, Luoyang, Xiangyang Bearing Factory and Shanghai Bearing Industry have five distinctive production bases, as well as small and medium-sized bearing enterprises dotted around. And established a comprehensive scientific research and factory design institutions and some professional process equipment and testing instrument factories in some industries, forming a bearing industry system with a basic reasonable layout, scientific research and production and a complete logistics support. According to the statistics of 171 major enterprises in 1977, the total industrial output value reached 1.01 billion yuan (constant price in 70 years), 120 million sets of bearing output, 147,000 employees, 48,000 sets of main production equipment, and 1.49 billion yuan in fixed assets. The labor productivity of the total output value of all employees is 6,821 yuan/person•year, which is a significant improvement over the previous development period.
(3) High-quality and rapid development stage (1978～1999)
The convening of the Third Plenary Session of the Eleventh Central Committee of the Communist Party of China in 1978 opened a new page in Chinese history. The magnificent wave of reforms was surging in the motherland. Under the guidance of Deng Xiaoping Theory, the bearing industry has continuously promoted reforms, expanded opening up, accelerated development, and realized the liberation of productivity. The comprehensive technical and economic strength has been significantly enhanced, and its international influence has increased. Historical changes have taken place in the industry. The third wave in the history of the bearing industry.
During the "Six-Five" period, the bearing industry has implemented the "Three-on-One Improvement" policy of the Ministry of Machinery. Through technological transformation and technology introduction, the production layout has been further improved, the production capacity of short-term products has been enhanced, and the economic benefits have been improved. While introducing technology, it has carried out technical exchanges and cooperation with Swedish SKF, Japanese NTN, NSK, American TIMKEN and other famous bearing companies. During the period, new products such as sealed bearings, joint bearings, linear motion bearings, combined bearings, swivel bearings, and harmonic drive bearings were also developed. The bearing design level gradually approached (or partially reached) the advanced level of similar foreign products. Among them, the 777/650 type rolling mill bearings produced by Wafangdian Bearing Factory have reached the international advanced level in life and won the National Silver Award for Quality Products. The B and C grades 3182120-3182122 and 2268120-2268122 machine tool spindle bearings produced by Harbin Bearing Factory won the National Silver Award for Quality Products. The B3-706 and B3-707 precision optical coordinate boring machine spindle bearings designed by Luoyang Bearing Factory won the National Gold Award for Quality Products.
During the "Seventh Five-Year Plan" period, under the promotion of reform and opening up, the industry implemented reorganization and unity, adjusted the industrial structure, carried out technological transformation, supported the best and managed scattered, and the bearing industry production continued to develop at a high speed. At the end of the "Seventh Five-Year Plan" period in 1990, according to the statistics of 290 major enterprises, the total industrial output value (90-year constant price) was 6.97 billion yuan, the output exceeded 590 million sets, and the original value of fixed assets was 4.42 billion yuan. A notable feature of this issue is the substantial increase in bearing exports. Compared with the end of the "Sixth Five-Year Plan" period, the foreign exchange earnings from bearing exports in this period has increased by 16 times, with an average annual growth rate of 76%. It reached the best level in history at the time in 1990, and the foreign exchange earnings from exports reached 1.82. One hundred million U.S. dollars.
In the late period of "August Five", the State Planning Commission and the Ministry of Mechanical and Electrical Technology issued the "Notice on Several Measures for the Revitalization of Specific Basic Machinery and Basic Parts", which clarified that the bearing is a national specific revitalization basic product. The bearing industry seized this opportunity and formulated the "Outline for the Development and Revitalization of the Bearing Industry in the Ninth Five-Year Plan" in a timely manner. With demand as the target, the industry has strengthened its supporting capabilities for key mainframes, and cooperated with the localization of imported equipment to develop and produce a number of substitute imported products. For example, the domestic product matching rate of the bearings required for the main equipment of the Baosteel Phase I project has reached 34% in variety and 80% in quantity; the railway passenger car bearings developed by the industry have solved long-term key quality problems and reached the same level in the early 1990s. The level of the product; the cylindrical roller bearing for the mud pump was awarded the National Excellent Gold Product Award. The quality of metallurgy, mining, rolling mills, oil drilling rigs and military special bearing products has also been significantly improved. A batch of new technology and special equipment and instruments have also been developed, such as the outer spherical bearing rubber cap machine developed by Tianshui Axis Instrument Factory, the demagnetization cleaning machine for bearing parts, and the railway bearing special equipment MK7675 CNC double end grinder manufactured by Wafangdian Bearing Factory, etc. .
During the "Nine-Five" period, the bearing industry decided to develop the "three cars" (automobiles, railway passenger cars, trucks, engineering and agricultural machinery vehicles), "three machines" (metallurgy, mining, petrochemical machinery, precision machine tools, motors) and "three highs" (High value-added, high-tech, high-precision and high-efficiency special equipment) Bearings and equipment are specific revitalized products, focusing on solving the outstanding contradiction between supply and demand, technical difficulties, expanding export foreign exchange capacity, and improving economic efficiency. Bearing products and special process equipment. Due to the influence of the country’s large economic environment in recent years, large and medium-sized state-owned enterprises in the industry have encountered great difficulties. Therefore, the implementation of the "Ninth Five-Year Plan" project is still not satisfactory, especially the technical transformation tasks in the next two years are still quite arduous . But there are also some assessment indicators that have made great progress, such as the total industrial output value (constant price in 1990). By 2000, the target is 209, and the total industrial output value has reached 20 billion yuan, which is 95.7% of the assessment indicators. Over the past two decades of reform and opening up, the bearing industry has achieved a historic leap. Its main symbol is:
The old planned economic system is gradually broken, the new market economic system has been initially formed, and the bearing industry has established a relatively complete industrial system. The economy is developing rapidly, and the comprehensive economic strength is rapidly increasing. Calculated at 90-year constant prices, the total output value of the bearing industry of designated enterprises was 1.93 billion yuan in 1978, and by 1997 it had reached 12.74 billion yuan, an increase of 5.6 times, and the average annual growth rate was 10.4%. It is the development of the new China bearing economy. *Quick period. (For example, in terms of total sales, it increased by 10.7 times in 20 years, with an average annual increase rate of 13.8%). During this period, due to the rapid development of township enterprises and foreign-funded enterprises, the bearing production capacity has been steadily increasing. In 1997, the total industrial output value of the whole industry reached 20 billion yuan. Based on this estimate, the average annual growth rate in the two decades reached 13.2%. The total industrial output value of designated enterprises in 1980 (constant price in 1990) was only 2.0 billion yuan, but reached 8.04 billion yuan in 1991, indicating that the bearing industry achieved the strategic goal of quadrupling industrial output value earlier. Investment in fixed assets has increased substantially, and production capacity and technology have reached a new level. In the three “Five-Year Plans” of “Sixth Five-Year Plan”, “Seventh Five-Year Plan” and “Eighth Five-Year Plan”, the central, provincial, municipal and local governments invested 7.4 billion yuan in technological transformation and infrastructure construction of the bearing industry (including “Sixth Five-Year Plan”). "200 million yuan, 1.9 billion yuan for the Seventh Five-Year Plan, and 5.3 billion yuan for the Eighth Five-Year Plan), and 4.2 billion yuan for the Ninth Five-Year Plan, which will rapidly increase production capacity and significantly improve the technical level.
The bearing industry's supporting capabilities for mainframes and major technical equipment have been greatly enhanced, providing high-quality new products for national defense construction and the development of high-tech; bearing exports account for a relatively high share. In 1997, the entire industry's bearing exports were 780 million sets. Foreign exchange earnings of 430 million U.S. dollars have accounted for 17.6% in terms of output value and 43.3% in terms of output. The degree of internationalization of the bearing market has significantly improved