Energy saving Chinese big idea

From global emission reduction actions to the fashionable low-carbon economy, from smart grids from models to new energy vehicles, the human economic growth model in the era of transformation is undergoing a gorgeous and tempting turn. . Under the background of this magnanimous background, China Energy Conservation's long-term planning and specific actions have been given strong and vivid connotations.

The future "energy crisis"

   The "energy crisis" reflects the "pathological" industrial structure dominated by my country's heavy and chemical industries and the deformed energy consumption structure caused by it.

  The Chinese economy in the upward channel is facing the rigid constraints of the "energy crisis". The historical label of "large land and abundant resources, rich in mineral resources" cannot conceal the fact that China's energy card is weak.

Petroleum resources: According to the latest planning report of the Ministry of Land and Resources, my country’s proven recoverable oil reserves are about 2.3 billion tons, which can only be exploited for about 14 years. By 2020, my country’s cumulative demand for oil will exceed 6 billion tons; Due to the continuous and substantial increase in demand and the limited production growth rate, by 2020, my country's foreign dependence on oil and natural gas will reach 55.8%-62.1%.

   Coal resources: my country's energy resource structure is dominated by coal, accounting for 75.2% of the total energy resources. According to forecasts, my country’s proven usable coal reserves are nearly 200 billion tons, and if the annual production rate of 2.5 billion tons of raw coal is estimated, it can still be supplied for 80 years. Even though our country has considerable coal resources, there are few high-quality resources.

   Power resources: At present, China's per capita electricity consumption is only 1/3 of the world's average electricity consumption. According to the monitoring of the State Electricity Regulatory Commission, in a normal year, the national power supply gap is basically around 80 billion kilowatt-hours, while the national power gap during peak periods is about 25 million kilowatts. Although the country's power generation is growing at a rate close to twice the GDP growth rate, 21 provinces across the country still suffer from power shortages to varying degrees. And every kilowatt-hour lack of electricity will bring about seven yuan of GDP loss.

   Water resources: According to data, among more than 660 cities in my country, more than 400 cities have insufficient water supply, and 110 cities are seriously short of water. Due to the lack of water, the annual loss of total industrial output value is about 200 billion yuan; in recent years, the annual loss of agricultural water (nearly 3.3 billion mu of land is affected) has caused losses of 150 billion yuan. As China's population grows, the per capita amount of freshwater resources will become less and less. It is estimated that by 2030, China will be listed as a country with severe water shortages.

   The "energy crisis" reflects the "pathological" industrial structure dominated by my country's heavy and chemical industries and the deformed energy consumption structure caused by it. It is mainly the rapid growth of the output of high energy-consuming products that has directly driven the high growth of my country's power and energy consumption in recent years. In the Yangtze River Delta, batches of large-scale manufacturing projects with high energy consumption such as petrochemicals and steel can be seen everywhere. In order to solve the energy consumption problems of these enterprises, supporting thermal power projects have also been launched, thereby generating high energy consumption projects. The industrial model of polluting energy projects.

At the same time, my country is also a country with relatively low energy utilization efficiency-the total energy utilization efficiency is only 32%, the energy consumption per unit of GDP is three times higher than that of advanced countries, and the energy consumption per unit of product produced is 50% to 100 higher than that of foreign countries. %. The design value of fuel consumption per 100 kilometers of automobile engines in my country is 10% to 15% higher than that of developed countries, and the actual value of average annual fuel consumption of a single vehicle is 2.28 tons, which is 10% to 20% higher than that of the United States and twice that of Japan. According to the latest "Environmental Sustainability Index" evaluation report published by the World Economic Forum in Davos, Switzerland, China ranks 133rd among 144 countries and regions in the world. The report pointed out that the production model of low output value and high energy consumption will cause the country to become poor while its energy and environment deteriorate first.

   Shocking energy waste

   Maybe, many people are still dreaming like the "cornucopia": keep taking them out, but the wealth in the basin is not scarce. But reality is constantly breaking such illusions.

   Today, we have achieved the goal of moving from food and clothing to a well-off society, but according to the life philosophy of abundance but not luxury, comfort and unassuming, looking at today’s society where there is no lack of waste, it is hard to call it dignified. Let us look at the basic ecology of energy waste in Chinese society——-

   Fuel: There are too many private cars, and the number of passengers per car is too extravagant compared to the fuel consumption. Automobile consumption pursues luxury and large displacement, and society generally does not focus on the construction of public transportation. As a result, fuel consumption is serious and fuel scarcity is caused. Low-tech and high-waste consumption methods are the fundamental problems of my country’s oil consumption.

   Coal: Many coal-using companies have extensive production methods and serious waste. At present, the national coal mine resource recovery rate is only about 40%, especially the recovery rate of small coal mines is only 15%. From 1980 to 2000, 28 billion tons of coal mine resources nationwide were wasted. If this continues, by 2020, 56 billion tons of coal resources will be wasted nationwide.

Electricity: In the morning when the indoor visibility is good, several large chandeliers are turned on without hesitation; the air-conditioning in the mall is open, but the doors are also open; the lighting project to show the image is not turned off throughout the night; TV, VCD, air-conditioning and other households Electrical appliances are often in standby mode; most households never unplug household appliances that are not in use during the day; it is very common to turn off the display and printer power switch after turning off the computer host. If all office computers in the country are so "turned off" after get off work, the annual waste of electricity will exceed 1.2 billion kWh...

   Building: Housing consumption pursues large area and high standards, floor and interior design is unreasonable, building materials are not energy-efficient, etc. Each additional building wastes resources such as land, water, and electricity. Some cities are greedy for foreign construction, especially the low utilization rate of many image projects in various parts of China, and the idle period is too long, resulting in waste of land and construction costs.

Water resources: At present, the national groundwater natural resources have averaged more than 880 billion cubic meters for many years, accounting for about 1/3 of the country's total water resources. However, there are more than 100 regional groundwater drop hoppers, covering an area of ​​150,000 square kilometers. . In all kinds of meetings, large and small, the podium and the bottled pure water on the guest seats were filled. After the meeting ended, almost all the seats were left with half of the bottled drinks. A cleaning staff working at a convention and exhibition center in Shanghai said: "If 500 people hold a one-day meeting, we will probably recycle about 1,600 beverage bottles, of which about 900 still have water in them."

  In the face of the lack of resources, the role model of public officials appears to be lagging behind. "The government is the most generous consumer." Beijing conducted a questionnaire survey on the energy consumption of 48 municipal and district government agencies in the city in 2004. The results show that the per capita energy consumption, per capita annual water consumption and per capita annual electricity consumption of 48 government agencies are four, three and seven times that of Beijing residents. Among them, the highest per capita annual electricity consumption of government agencies reached 9402 kWh, which is 19 times that of Beijing residents' 488 kWh. In other words, the highest power consumption of a government official in a day is enough for an ordinary person to use for 19 days. This "contrast" reflects the image of a "wasteful organization" from the small perspective of "power consumption per capita".

  Perhaps, many people are still dreaming of the "cornucopia": keep taking them outward, but the wealth in the basin is not scarce. But reality is constantly breaking such illusions. Relevant research results provided by the Development Research Center of the State Council show that if energy consumption and economic growth are synchronized, my country’s total primary energy demand will reach about 6 billion tons of standard coal by 2020, which is equivalent to five or six Datong coal mines being put into production each year. It simply cannot be done.

   The energy-saving market is a "rich mine"

   At present, China’s primary energy conversion has 25% energy-saving potential, terminal consumption has 26% energy-saving potential, and the average energy-saving potential of primary energy consumption is 26% --- China's energy-saving market prospects are attractive.

According to China’s energy conservation and emission reduction targets, by 2010, China’s energy consumption per 10,000 yuan of GDP will drop from 1.22 tons of standard coal in 2005 to less than one ton of standard coal, a reduction of about 20%; water consumption per unit of industrial added value will be reduced 30%. According to data, at present, China’s primary energy conversion has 25% energy saving potential, terminal consumption has 26% energy saving potential, and the average energy saving potential of primary energy consumption is 26%. Therefore, it is not difficult to find out that the market prospects presented by China Energy Conservation are very attractive.

  Industrial energy saving: the biggest cake

   According to the data, 70% of the energy consumption of the whole society is concentrated in the fields of metallurgy, chemical industry and building materials. Therefore, industry is regarded as the sector with the greatest potential for energy conservation investment. Among them, the power consumption of industrial motors accounts for 2/3 of the total power consumption of the country, and half is used to drive fans, pumps, and compressors. About 2/3 of fans and pumps need to adjust the flow during operation. At the same time, among the more than 10 million industrial motors nationwide, if high-parameter, large-capacity generator sets and high-efficiency auxiliary machines can be used, the coal consumption for power supply in the industrial sector can be reduced by about 10%. In addition, there are 500,000 industrial boilers and more than 100,000 industrial furnaces in our country. Their thermal efficiency is about 60% to 70%, which is 10 to 15% worse than foreign countries. If its energy-saving transformation, such as using power coal blending, briquette, can achieve significant energy-saving effects.

   Building energy efficiency: a fertile market

  According to the internationally accepted classification, building energy consumption mainly includes the energy consumption of residential buildings and public buildings, such as building heating, elevators, ventilation, etc. Data show that 95% of my country's existing buildings fail to meet energy-saving standards, and less than 20% of new buildings meet energy-saving standards. According to data from the Building Energy Conservation Department of the China Construction Industry Association, the first 20 years of this century are the heyday of my country's construction industry. In 2020, the floor area of ​​buildings in the country will be nearly twice that of 2000. At present, the area of ​​houses built every year is as high as 16 100 million to 2 billion square meters, more than the total annual built-up area of ​​all developed countries. Since the heat transfer per unit area of ​​walls, roofs, doors and windows in our country is two to five times that of developed countries with similar climatic conditions, the key to solving building energy conservation is the urgent need to develop solutions that are load-bearing, environmentally friendly, and do not require other Thermal insulation measures can meet the current energy-saving design standards for wall materials. If all urban buildings meet energy-saving standards, by 2020, 335 million tons of standard coal will be saved and 80 million kilowatt-hours of peak air-conditioning load will be reduced, which is equivalent to the power generation of 4.5 Three Gorges Dam, which is equivalent to saving about one year of electricity construction investment every year. Trillion yuan.

   Transportation energy saving: mobile wealth

   Automobiles are big oil consumers. For this reason, the country intends to implement minimum fuel economy standards for newly produced models. This will be the first time China has implemented such standards. Although the "coal to oil" technology has been developed as early as the last century, it has not been widely promoted because its product price is higher than that of oil. If costs can be further reduced, its market prospects are very broad. In addition, the diversification of automobile energy and the electrification of automobile power represent the technological change and transformation trend of transportation energy power system. Hydrogen energy, as the same energy carrier as electricity, is the best choice for a new generation of leading vehicle fuels; as a high-efficiency zero-pollution electrochemical energy conversion device, fuel cells are considered to be the ideal choice for the core components of vehicle power electrification. To this end, companies need to gather human and material resources to carry out research. Home energy saving: a treasure house of abundance

  340 million Chinese households have formed a strong energy-consuming pull, but at the same time they constitute an important cell of energy-saving. If all the existing ordinary refrigerators in China's 130 million households are replaced with energy-saving refrigerators, an average of 20% of energy can be saved each year in the next 15 years, and the country will consume 120 billion kWh less electricity. Similarly, if the standby energy consumption index of the TV is limited to three watts, and the standby time of the color TV is assumed to be an average of two hours a day, by 2011, the cumulative energy saving can reach 11.612 billion kWh. If each family uses four energy-saving lamps, 20 billion yuan can be saved every year; if water-saving appliances are fully promoted, urban households across the country can save 1.7 billion tons of water a year.

  With system and policy as the engine

  According to the basic national conditions of my country's energy shortage, to build a conservation-oriented society, it is necessary to choose a different energy combination from developed countries...

   Save water, save electricity, save oil... These words that were once hung on the mouth and posted on the wall are not unfamiliar to this day, but the effects of specific actions are greatly reduced. The reason is that we have not created a very mature and economical society environment. According to the basic national conditions of my country’s energy shortage, to build a conservation-oriented society, we must choose an energy combination method that is different from that of developed countries—to eliminate energy waste, reduce energy consumption, increase energy utilization, and increase productivity to alleviate the contradiction between energy supply and demand. .

  ———Adjust the energy structure

   Since my country’s current energy supply structure is very rigid, the optimization and adjustment of the energy structure should focus on the demand structure or consumption structure. In line with the sustainable energy development strategy of "energy saving priority, diversified structure and environmentally friendly", the adjustment direction of the energy consumption structure should be: gradually reduce the proportion of coal consumption, accelerate the development of the natural gas industry, and rely on domestic resources to meet the basic demand for oil in the domestic market In 20 years, a diversified energy consumption pattern has been initially formed and the proportion of high-quality energy has been significantly increased.

  Implementing energy substitution strategy is the meaning of optimizing energy structure. What is gratifying is that for the future development of alternative energy in China, the National Development and Reform Commission has such a description in the medium and long-term energy plan: for small hydropower, solar thermal utilization, biogas and other technologically mature and economical energy, it is necessary to eliminate market barriers. Increasing national policy support and other measures to expand the scale of development and application; for wind power and biomass power generation with abundant resources, basically mature technologies and close to commercialization, it is necessary to establish and expand market demand through the formulation of regulations and incentive policies. In order to rely on and accelerate the development of industrialization; for solar photovoltaic power generation with huge resource potential, mature and reliable technology and high cost, it must be adapted to local conditions to solve the electricity problem of residents in remote areas and special industries and provide the necessary market scale for the development of photovoltaic industry , To promote the continuous progress and improvement of photovoltaic power generation technology.

   It must be pointed out that my country's energy sector reform is seriously lagging behind, and to a certain extent has become a restrictive factor for my country's economic growth and deepening reform. For example, coal prices have not yet been fully market-oriented; the reform of "separation of power plants and grids and online bidding" in the power sector has just begun; the regional monopoly after the spin-off of the petroleum sector is still relatively strong; the main players in the energy sector, market order, market functions, and pricing The mechanism has not yet been reformed. Therefore, the country should establish a unified energy management agency, promote energy reform, establish a petroleum reserve system, and formulate and implement energy development strategies to ensure China's energy security. ———Optimize the economic layout

   Transformation of economic growth mode is the fundamental prerequisite for improving energy efficiency. The basic requirements are: the demand structure must change from mainly relying on investment and exports to drive growth to consumption and investment, domestic and external demand jointly driving growth; the industrial structure must be transformed from mainly relying on industry to drive growth to industry, service industry and agriculture. ; The input of factor resources should be transformed from relying mainly on capital and natural resources to support growth to more relying on human capital and technological progress; the way of resource utilization should be realized from the one-way linear process of "resources-products-waste" to " The transformation of the feedback cycle process of "resources-products-waste-renewable resources" makes economic growth based on the optimization of economic structure, the increase of scientific and technological content, and the quality of